Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) in the Facilities Environment

The following article was originally published by Reliability Web. The original article may be found here

The role of RCM in the facilities (non – production) environment as expected varies dramatically with the age and type of facility being operated and maintained thus, the type of RCM to be applied must be carefully decided to ensure both tangible and intangible benefits will be realized within the budgetary constraints of the organization. In addition, the dynamics of the organization where RCM is being considered must be considered before selecting the optimum approach. For example, an organization involved in large scale construction and/or renovation will have substantially different requirements and resultant business case than one focused on sustaining the status quo via a maintenance and minor repair approach.

The business case for RCM implementation for the majority of existing facilities where the inventory is stable is primarily based on the following cost avoidance techniques:

  • Reduction in time based maintenance hours
  • Reduced catastrophic failures and resultant costs
  • Age Exploration – OEM recommendations for example

For organizations where new construction and major revitalization are occurring, the business case also includes using the following to identify, implement, and verify (quantification) reliability issues:

  • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
  • Commissioning
  • Operations and Maintenance tasks
  • Initial tools and training
  • Age Exploration for revitalization

Note: This paper does not address the basics of RCM and is intended as an aid to deciding the applicability and portion of RCM to apply to your facility and operating environment.

Where to Start:

  1. Determine if there is any reason to change the way you do business

While RCM, is the paraphrase others, the only truly logical and empirical approach for establishing and maintaining a maintenance program it is not for everyone and should not be pursued unless there is a factual basis which offers either tangible or intangible benefits. These benefits include only the following:

  • Reliability issues in – terms of safety, security, and mission
  • Financial return both, direct and lost opportunity costs

Building the business case and implementation strategy should be based on both strategic (global) and tactical (event) key performance indicators regardless of the type of facility being considered.

Life Cycle

Choosing the Appropriate RCM Approach

There are several ways to conduct and implement an RCM program.  The program can be based on rigorous Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), complete with mathematically-calculated probabilities of failure based on design and/or historical data, intuition or common-sense, and/or experimental data and modeling.  These approaches may be called Classical, Rigorous, Intuitive, Streamlined, or Abbreviated.  Other terms sometimes used for these same approaches include Concise, Preventive Maintenance (PM) Optimization, Reliability Based, and Reliability Enhanced.  All are applicable.  The decision of what technique to use should be left to the end user and be based on:

  • Consequences of failure
  • Probability of failure
  • Historical data available
  • Risk tolerance

Classical/Rigorous RCM

a.  Benefits

Classical or rigorous RCM provides the most knowledge and data concerning system functions, failure modes, and maintenance actions addressing functional failures of any of the RCM approaches.  Rigorous RCM analysis is the method first proposed and documented by Nowlan and Heap and later modified by John Moubray, Anthony M. Smith, and others.  In addition, this method should produce the most complete documentation of all the methods addressed here.

b.  Concerns

Classical or rigorous RCM historically has been based primarily on the FMEA with little, if any, analysis of historical performance data.  In addition, rigorous RCM analysis is extremely labor intensive and often postpones the implementation of obvious condition monitoring tasks.

c.  Applications

The classical approach should be limited to the following three situations:

  • The consequences of failure result in catastrophic risk in terms of environment, health, or safety and/or complete economic failure of the business unit.
  • The resultant reliability and associated maintenance cost is still unacceptable after performing and implementing a streamlined type FMEA.
  • The system/equipment is new to the organization and insufficient corporate maintenance and operational knowledge exists on its function and functional failures.

Abbreviated/Intuitive/Streamlined RCM

a.  Benefits

The intuitive approach identifies and implements the obvious, usually condition-based, tasks with minimal analysis.  In addition, it culls or eliminates low value maintenance tasks based on historical data and Maintenance and Operations (M&O) personnel input.  The intent is to minimize the initial analysis time in order to realize early-wins that help offset the cost of the FMEA and condition monitoring capabilities development.

b.  Concerns

Reliance on historical records and personnel knowledge can introduce errors into the process that may lead to missing hidden failures where a low probability of occurrence exists.  In addition, the intuitive process requires that at least one individual has a thorough understanding of the various condition monitoring technologies and failure mechanisms.

c.  Applications

The streamlined approach should be utilized when:

  • The function of the system/equipment is well understood.
  • Functional failure of the system/equipment will not result in loss of life or catastrophic impact on the environment or unit business.

For these reasons, the streamlined or intuitive approach is recommended for the majority of facilities. Exceptions are where single points of failure exist and the associated risk of failure cannot be mitigated.

The streamlined or intuitive approach is recommended due to the high analysis cost of the rigorous approach, the relative low impact of failure of most facilities systems, the type of systems and components maintained, and the amount of redundant systems in place.  The streamlined approach uses the same principles as the rigorous, but recognizes not all failure modes will be analyzed.  RCM users have reviewed the various processes in use and have determined that the most economical and efficient approach is to use a combination of rigorous (formal) and intuitive analysis depending on system criticality and failure impact.

A more rigorous analysis may be warranted for those systems and components where the streamlined or intuitive RCM process has been used and the resultant reliability is still unacceptable in terms of security, safety, cost, or mission impact.

Three Approaches to RCM

1.  Globally Dispersed – Large New Construction Effort

a.  Use of generic FMEA data to construct maintenance program tasks, interval, and training programs
b.  Commissioning developed using FMEA with a concentration on identifying and addressing single points of failure
c.  Criticality and probability of failure used to determine stocking plan
d.  Roving condition monitoring teams to determine priority and scheduling of repair and PM teams
e.  Root cause failure centrally located and coordinated by system experts
f.  Metrics developed to track availability, mean time between failure, and costs
g.  Significant overhaul of design and procurement process to implement RCM
h.  Process reengineering used to identify potential opportunities

2.  Dispersed – Aging and Diminishing Inventory

a.  No FMEA performed on standard facility equipment where sufficient redundancy existed. FMEA performed on a case – by -case basis for critical program equipment
b.  Immediate implementation of condition monitoring technologies appropriate to machinery type and mission
c.  Dispersed technologists at each location
d.  Minimum central management
e.  Virtual teams to shard information
f.  Commissioning limited to condition monitoring acceptance testing
g.  Metrics developed to track availability, mean time between failure, and costs
h.  Limited changes to building specifications

3.  Centrally Located (for the most part) – Limited Revitalization

a.  Generic FMEA used and all maintenance tasks revised
b.  RCM added to position descriptions and annual performance plans
c.  Spare parts switched to Just – In – Time
d.  Dispersed first line maintenance with centralized technologists
e.  Immediate implementation of condition monitoring technologies appropriate to machinery type and mission
f.  Limited use of acceptance testing
g.  Metrics developed to track availability, mean time between failure, and costs and reported to all levels of the organization on a monthly basis
h.  On -going training program implemented – 40 hours per employee per year

In closing, there are these basic rules:

  • Pick the appropriate level of sophistication based on a business plan which addresses implementation cost, time required, return – on investment, and risk mitigation
  • Create and apply the appropriate Key Performance Indicators and make them public
  • Communicate and train everyone
  • Be shameless in promoting your program – crow about your successes and acknowledge your failures in order to build and maintain credibility
  • Do not over analyze
  • Stay the course, RCM is not a program of the quarter
  • Design and use your management software to analyze and identify areas problems
  • Do not simply add a condition monitoring technology without understanding related changes

Article submitted by Alan K. Pride, Associate Director, Smithsonian Institute

Maximo Spatial Database Federation

Originally posted on the developerWorks blog.

Maximo Spatial Database Federation

Author: Rodrigo Dombrowski, Maximo Product Designer & Architect
This article describes the Maximo Spatial architecture that integrates the IBM Maximo Asset Management database with a GIS geodatabase.

All information below is valid for Maximo Spatial 7.5 version.

Maximo Spatial integrates with the GIS database using a concept called database federation, often also called database links.

Database Federation provides the following benefits:

  • No data replication needed as GIS data can be exposed and displayed on Maximo forms
  • Distributed database transactions to ensure consistency
  • Higher performance for batch read and creation of GIS records and Maximo records
  • All Maximo framework functionality and security available when displaying and editing GIS data
  • Multiple geo databases support

Documentation about how to configure Maximo Spatial to integrate with feature class tables is available in:

http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v49r1/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.spl.doc%2Ft_ctr_configuring.html

Documentation about how to expose GIS data to Maximo forms is available in:

http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v49r1/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.spl.doc%2Fconfigure%2Ft_ctr_customize_spatial_apps.html

The Maximo Spatial database configuration is done independently for each feature class that the client want to integrate with Maximo. This allows supporting multiple geodatabases and feature classes in any database schema. For GIS data insert and updates Maximo Spatial requires that both databases be from the same vendor. Oracle+Oracle, or DB2+DB2, or SQLServer+SQLServer.

Configuration Overview

Configuration Overview

In some cases it is not possible to have both Maximo and GIS database from the same vendor or it is not possible to configure database links.
For these cases currently there are the following options:

Option 1 – Read only mode – No database federation (database link)

  • Same configuration process, including Database Configuration steps, but without database link
  • It makes Maximo Spatial only read-only mode for GIS data
  • Map toolbar tools like selection, query by attributes and update GIS list stays working
  • No GIS record link or cron task will be available
  • No GIS geometry creation and editing from Maximo

Option 1

Option 1

Option 2 – No federation, read/write GIS data moved to local Maximo database

Example: Maximo running on DB2 and GIS data on Oracle database

  • Full Maximo Spatial functionality for the GIS data that is moved to Maximo database
  • No federation required when GIS is on the same Maximo database instance
  • GIS data that can be read only to Spatial can stay on Oracle
  • May require additional ArcSDE license
Option 2

Option 2

Asset Life Cycle with Maximo for Transportation

This post originally was posted on the  IBM Asset & Facilities Management blog and was written by Vito DeMalteris.

 Asset Life Cycle with Maximo for Transportation

The Asset Life Cycle is an important process to monitor for any industry. All asset owners make some attempt at monitoring this cycle in order to develop enlightened, informed decisions regarding maintenance strategies, spare parts requirements, operational procedures and repair/replace options. The key requirement in making these decisions is knowledge and information. Some of this will come from the manufacturer, some from user experience but the most significant source is from the operating and maintenance history of the specific asset. As you read this document, review the features in theTransportation page.
Maximo for Transportation provides significant detail related to the asset history. The asset application contains information related to that specific asset so that it is made readily available for the user, and in one location in Maximo. Information about warranty coverage, a significant process in the transportation industry, is displayed so that the user will always know what the warranty status is for each asset without having to look for it in the warranty applications.
Advanced Metering capabilities enhance the usage and Preventive Maintenance processes to further the maintenance strategy for your assets. Each asset record has a history option which provides a view into the asset including Work, Preventive and Predictive schedules and history, meter readings history, status change history, condition status history, move history, usage history for motor pool assets, Telematics reading history, activity history, axle position reading history and a chronological history of activities. All of this information is made easily accessible.
Utilizing the Depreciation Schedule provided in the Asset application allows the user to track the monetary value of this asset up to the current date. This information, used in conjunction with the maintenance and meter history of the asset, can be used to help make the repair/replace decision that is inevitable in the transportation environment. 
To help the organization prevent unnecessary work, Maximo for Transportation will display any recent or repeat repairs on the asset whenever a work order against that asset is created. This feature not only helps eliminate duplicate work orders but also helps identify recurring problems which may be an indication of other issues related to the asset, its environment or perhaps training for the technicians performing the work. All of this helps extend the asset service life by pushing valuable information to the user. In summary, Maximo for Transportation provides detailed information concerning the asset to enable the user to extend the asset life cycle and provide the data needed when the time to replace that asset is near. Hear this information for yourself from one of our Transportation clients (Royal Boskalis Westminster). Link to video.

Using Maximo Oil and Gas to manage permits to work

Using Maximo for Oil and Gas, v7.5.1 to manage work processes with permits to work

The following was originally posted in the IBM Developer Works blog by Liliane Himmel 

To manage the safety of personnel and the workplace, you can define permits to work. Using corresponding work order records, you can associate tasks with permits to work. You can also associate authorized personnel with permit or certificate types to ensure that personnel have the necessary credentials to carry out those tasks. You can specify who is authorized to review and approve the permits to work. You can define the isolations and hazards that are associated with specific assets, and the actions to be taken in emergency situations. You can also create related record relationships between tickets, permits to work, and work orders.

In the Drilling and Completion application, you can review the permits to work that are related to work orders to ensure that all permits are included. Permits to work provide a system of control to ensure the safety of the plant. You can use permits to work to manage the work activities and to ensure that steps are taken to prevent accidents.

Creating permits to work

A permit to work defines the hazards and isolations that are associated with work activities. When you create permits to work, you provide the details with which the permit is associated. You ensure that permits to work are ready to be issued. Optionally, you can hold toolbox talks to communicate the safety aspects of the work activities.

A permit to work defines the hazards and isolations that are associated with work activities. When you create permits to work, you provide the details with which the permit is associated. You ensure that permits to work are ready to be issued. Optionally, you can hold toolbox talks to communicate the safety aspects of the work activities.

About this task
When you create a permit to work, you must evaluate the hazards that are involved in completing the work that is associated with that permit. You can also define the conditions for work.

In addition to creating permits to work from the Permit to Work application, you can create permits to work from the Work Order Tracking application and from the Drilling and Completion application.

Assets or locations are isolated to allow work to be carried out without hazards for personnel. Procedures are followed to contain an asset or a location before an authorized person can work on it. For example, you can specify that an asset is isolated from a potentially hazardous source of energy. When the work is complete, the steps that were taken to isolate that asset are removed so that the asset can be returned to production.

Procedure

  1. In the Permit and Certificate Types application, define a permit or certificate type to associate with this permit to work. Use the rich text editor of the Long Description field to assign a color and a font size to the text. You can assign a different color to highlight the type of permit or certificate. The highlighted text displays in the Permit Header field of the Permit to Work application.
  2. In the People application, authorize qualified, active personnel to conduct gas tests and to record emissions.
  3. In the Risk Assessment application, identify the hazards that are associated with work operations and assess their risks. Hazard records must belong to the same organization as the permit to work.
  4. In the Permit to Work application, click New Permit to Work on the toolbar.
  5. On the Permit to Work tab, specify the beginning and end dates and times, the permit level, and the site for the permit to work.
  6. Specify the asset and location details that are associated with the permit to work. If a permit to work is associated with a work order, the asset and location fields are populated from the work order.
  7. Specify the task details. If the certificate type is an isolation certificate, specify the type of isolation specialization that is required, and the reason for the isolation.
  8. On the Hazards and Isolations tab, specify the risk assessment, the gas testing details, the conditions for work, the isolations, and the hazardous materials.
  9. Save the record.

Ensuring that permits to work are ready to be issued

Verifying the conditions that are associated with permits to work

A toolbox talk is a safety presentation that is given to inform employees about safety procedures. You can also use toolbox talks to verify the conditions that are associated with the work activities. You record the attendees.

Before you begin

The permit to work must be reviewed, approved, issued, and in Active status before the toolbox talk is conducted.

The operating procedures that you add to the toolbox talk must also be in Active status. Operating procedures can be added or removed only when the permit to work is in Draft status.

About this task

You can specify the same identifier for multiple operating procedures, but the combination of organization, site, and procedure number must be unique.

Standard actions can be added when the permit to work is in Request or in Draft status. Review the checklist of standard actions during the toolbox talk. Standard actions cannot be added or removed when the permit to work is in Active status.

Items to be reviewed can include additional work hazards and control measures, or stop the job entries.

Procedure

  1. In the People application, add members of the team and their authorizations and certificates.
  2. In the Operating Procedures application, create the operating procedures to be discussed during the toolbox talk.
  3. On the Toolbox Talk tab of the Permit to Work application, specify the permit to work that requires a toolbox talk.
  4. On the Toolbox Talk tabs, specify the operating procedures, the actions or action groups, and the items to be reviewed.
  5. On the Work Party Declaration tab, specify the members of the team who attended the toolbox talk.
  6. In the Toolbox Talk Completion table, specify whether a toolbox talk was held and the person who held the toolbox talk. You also specify the date and time when the toolbox talk was held.
  7. Save the record.

Completing permits to work

Effective communication throughout the permit to work process is crucial to ensuring that risks are managed. After work is complete or if work is left to be done by another team, the details of returning the permit to work must be documented.

Canceling permits to work

When all of the work activities are complete, and the plant is returned to a safe condition, you can cancel or suspend active permits to work.

About this task

You can review and audit the permit to work before or after you close the record. Audit and survey records that are associated with permits to work must belong to the same site and organization. Before a permit to work can be closed, all isolations that are in place must be removed.

Procedure

  1. In the Permit to Work application, select the permit to work that you want to cancel.
  2. On the Cancelation Details table of the Handback and Cancellation tab, specify the cancellation details.
  3. Specify whether a lessons learned meeting was held or whether there are lessons learned that are associated with this permit to work.
  4. Specify whether this permit to work must go through an audit process. If this permit to work is linked to an audit and survey record, specify the record identifier.
  5. Specify whether the work site was cleared.
  6. Save the record.